Intimidating synonym

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In the neck the first two vertebrae, the atlas and axis, are fused.

In the shoulder girdle, the coracoid has a rectangular profile, in contrast to the more rounded shape with Panoplosaurus. rugosidens the deltopectoral crest of the humerus is gradually rounded.

Edmontonia was an armoured dinosaur, part of the nodosaur family from the Late Cretaceous Period.

It is named after the Edmonton Formation (now the Horseshoe Canyon Formation in Canada), the unit of rock it was found in.

In the third halfring over the shoulders, the two pairs of central segments are bordered on each side by a very large forward-pointing spike that is bifurcated, featuring a secondary point above the main one. Behind the third halfring the back and hip are covered by numerous transverse rows of much smaller oval keeled osteoderms. The front rows have plates oriented along the length of the body, but to the rear the long axis of these osteoderms gradually rotates sideways, their keels ultimately running transversely. In 1915, the American Museum of Natural History obtained the nearly complete, articulated front half of an armoured dinosaur, found the same year by Barnum Brown in Alberta, Canada.

A third large spike behind it points more sideways; a smaller fourth one, often connected to the third at the base, is directed obliquely to behind. In 1922, William Diller Matthew referred this specimen, AMNH 5381, to Palaeoscincus in a popular-science article, not indicating any particular species.

The nasal cavity is separated into two halves along the midline by a bone wall.

This septum is continued to below by the vomers, which are keeled, the keel featuring a pendulum-shaped appendage. Details differ between the various specimens but all share a large central nasal tile on the snout, bend large "loreal" tiles at the rear snout edges and a large central caputegula on the skull roof.

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Below each lower end of the second halfring a side spike was present, a separate triangular osteoderm pointing obliquely forward. The larger plates of all body parts were connected by small ossicles.

Apart from the head armour, the body was covered with osteoderms, skin ossifications.

The configuration of the armour of Edmontonia is relatively well known, much of it having been discovered in articulation.

Contrary to that discovered with Panoplosaurus, it is "free-floating", not fused with the lower jaw bone.

The vertebral column contains about eight neck vertebrae, about twelve "free" back vertebrae, a "sacral rod" of four fused rear dorsal vertebrae, three sacral vertebrae, two caudosacrals and at least twenty, but probably about forty, tail vertebrae.

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